In research conducted recently, scientists discovered specific molecular markers within the bloodstream that predict serious outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection. The outcomes of the study expand the knowledge of the pathophysiology and clinical advancement of COVID-19 and also have the possibility to identify at the start of the infectious process which individuals are likely to build up serious disease and wish hospitalization.
Additionally to pneumonia and septic syndrome, a small % of patients also experience severe gastrointestinal and/or cardiovascular signs and symptoms and nerve signs and symptoms after SARS-COV-2 infection.
This research used a multi-omics method of integrate data from various omics disciplines, including cutting-edge transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic technologies, to recognize considerably connected molecular modifications in COVID-19 patients (especially critically ill patients). The work evaluated data from 83 patients in three groups, including 16 severe cases, 50 mild cases and 17 virus-free healthy controls.
Serial bloodstream and throat swab samples were collected all participants and determined whether COVID-19 pathophysiology was associated with specific molecular changes, with as many as 23,373 expressed genes, 9,439 proteins, 327 metabolites and 769 extracellular RNA molecule fragments.
Between mild and severe cases, you will find significant variations between various immune markers (e.g., type 1 interferons and inflammatory cytokines), the second being elevated within the latter, which shows a strong T cell response that might help prevent disease progression.
Additionally, there is a substantial correlation between multi-omics data and classical diagnostic bloodstream or biochemical parameters. Many of the reflected within the proteomic analysis, where tricarboxylic acidity cycle (TCA) and glycolytic pathways were considerably downregulated in mild and severe patients when compared with healthy controls. In comparison, in patients with COVID-19, host defense pathways (e.g., T-cell receptor signaling pathways) express elevated activity.
Another potentially valuable finding for future clinical me is the association between viral load and disease prognosis in patients with severe COVID-19. Regrettably, six seriously symptomatic patients died, as well as their SARS-CoV-2 RNA load acquired by sampling within the throat before admission was considerably greater compared to survivors. The notable finding here’s that proteins involved with antiviral processes, including T-cell and B-cell receptor signaling pathways, are positively correlated with viral load alterations in surviving severe patients.
Summary of biomarker
Biomarker describes indicators you can use to point physiological processes, pathological processes, and medicinal responses to therapeutic measures. Biomarkers can sensitively reflect disease states and can be used as disease screening, disease diagnosis, predictive drug side effects, and drug dose response studies , in addition to prognostic indicators for disease treatment.